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Lepota stvaralaštva – protiv depopulacije

Aleksandar Zarić, USAID Cooperation for Growth Project

Business Environment Director

Prema podacima UNDP[1] Srbija ima jednu od najbrže opadajućih populacija u svetu. Po sadašnjoj stopi, do 2100. godine procenjuje se da će se stanovništvo zemlje smanjiti za četvrtinu – što će dovesti do manje radne snage, smanjenja poreske osnovice i starenja stanovništva. Jedan od glavnih uzroka su migracije, što je i normalno – u potrazi za ekonomskim i životnim prilikama ljudi odlaze tamo gde ih za sebe vide. I to se dešava svuda u svetu. Problem je ukoliko prilika nema dovoljno ovde ili se o njima dovoljno ne zna. Koje su to prilike? Pre svega, one koje donosi preduzetništvo u doba digitalne ekonomije.

Nećemo se na ovom mestu opterećivati brojnim formalnim definicijama startapa, novoosnovanih kompanija ili preduzetništva, jer je cilj da primetimo nešto drugo. Šta je to što im je zajedničko, bez obzira na definiciju? Mislimo da je to – stvaralaštvo. Stvaralaštvo u njihovom preduzetničkom snu na prvom mestu. Stvaralaštvo poslovnih prilika i prihoda za sebe, zatim za širu zajednicu koja preduzetnika okružuje i od njega živi – partnere, zaposlene, dobavljače, njihove porodice, potrošače – kao i sredinu u kojoj posluju, društvo i ekonomiju u celini.

 

Zašto današnje vreme naročito pogoduje preduzetničkom stvaralaštvu? Uspešno preduzetništvo često podrazumeva inovativnost, koja danas po pravilu uključuje digitalnu tehnologiju – kao novi način za rešavanje starih problema i potreba.

 

Globalizacija tehnologije omogućila je da i preduzetnici u zemljama u razvoju imaju pristup istim alatima kao i njihove kolege u razvijenim zemljama. Mobilni telefon skoro svakog stanovnika na planeti se pretvorio u njihovog potencijalnog kupca. Korišćenjem platformi za elektronsku trgovinu i plaćanje za povezivanje sa milionima internet kupaca, velika je verovatnoća da će preduzetnici dosegnuti nova tržišta i da će značajan deo prihoda ostvariti iz izvoza. Srbija je prema renomiranim globalnim istraživanjima poput „Startup Genome“[2] prepoznata kao startap sredina sa visokim potencijalom.

 

Prošla godina donela je revoluciju i promenu percepcije elektronske trgovine. Prema rezultatima USAID-ove „Ankete 1000 preduzeća“ iz novembra 2020[3], apsolutna većina, čak 82% ispitanika koji imaju elektronsku prodavnicu ocenjuje je jednako važnom ili čak važnijom od tradicionalnog modela prodaje. Ovo je ujedno i najveća zabeležena promena stavova – najveći skok u procenti­ma u odnosu na nalaze USAID-ovog istraživanja iz prethodne godine.

 

Kako preduzetnički milje, koristeći prednosti digitalne ekonomije, stvara prilike u svojoj zajednici možemo da vidimo na nekoliko različitih domaćih primera.

 

60 seconds je aplikacija koja donosi tržni centar u ruke svakog potrošača. Ona omogućava prodavcima novi, jedinstveni kanal prodaje, naročito značajan u uslovima zatvaranja i smanjenja tradicionalne prodaje zbog krize prouzrokovane pandemijom. Nakon samo godinu dana od lansiranja, uz rano prepoznavanje i partnerstvo londonskog startap akceleratora i venture studija „Founders Factory“, 60 seconds je došao do investicije kompanije L’Oreal i nastavio da preko Londona širi poslovanje globalno.

 

Shopen.com je platforma za kreiranje elektronskih prodavnica, domaći servis koji omogućava i olakšava malim i srednjim preduzećima da se takmiče na onlajn tržištu. Svaki trgovac, po principu „uradi sam”, može veoma brzo da napravi funkcionalnu elektronsku prodavnicu i zaplovi vodama internet trgovine rame uz rame sa velikim korporacijama. Nekoliko stotina domaćih preduzeća već koristi mogućnost da preko servisa Shopen poveća prodaju, a uskoro će to činiti i privrednici u regionu.

 

Učiteljica.rs je onlajn edukativni centar za predškolce i školarce od 1. do 4. razreda, pokrenut da omogući deci i roditeljima sistem u kojem se poštuju individualne potrebe i mogućnosti svakog deteta. Klijenti su i roditelji direktno, ali i kompanije koje žele da omoguće benefit kojim ulažu u budućnost dece svojih zaposlenih. Deca iz bilo kog grada u Srbiji, ali sve više i iz dijaspore, dobijaju kvalitetan individualni rad i vreme provedeno u sticanju znanja sa učiteljicama, a mlade i vredne osobe iz tima – takođe iz različitih gradova Srbije, priliku da svoja znanja upotrebe i poslovno se ostvare na jedinstven način u moderno onlajn doba, nezavisno od ograničenih prilika za rad u tradicionalnom obrazovnom sistemu.

 

I konačno, navodim primer kompanije Glovo, startapa za koji smo svi čuli, ili bolje reći videli. Iako nije potekao iz Srbije (startap je iz Barselone i prisutan je globalno), navodimo ga zbog prilika koje stvara za domaću ekonomiju, ali i kao primer našim preduzetnicima šta sve svojim stvaralaštvom mogu da postignu i koliko da porastu. Sa nekoliko stotina hiljada korisnika u Srbiji, Glovo pruža drugim biznisima – naročito onim najviše pogođenim zatvaranjem i krizom izazvanom pandemijom poput HoReCa sektora, šansu da održe poslovanje. Takođe, brojnim dostavljačima pruža priliku za rad i izvor prihoda u izazovnim vremenima, kada im se možda neke druge prilike ne otvaraju.

 

Iako u početku mali, ovakvi preduzetnički poduhvati često donose velike ekonomske koristi. Stvaraju poslove, doprinose dinamici ekonomskih tokova podstičući inovacije i dovodeći do disrupcije tradicionalnih modela, boljeg iskorišćavanja resursa i potencijala, i veće konkurencije. Pozitivni efekti koje prelivaju na druge biznise – korisnike njihovih servisa, naročito se vide na primerima naših kompanija iz ovog teksta. Ovaj oblik „stvaralaštva“ izuzetno je važan u vreme krize izazvane pandemijom kada je moru malih biznisa plasman kroz platforme jedini način da dođu do potrošača.

 

Oni takođe donose društvene promene. Stvarajući nove proizvode i usluge, ovakvi preduzetnici se odvajaju od tradicije i smanjuju zavisnost od zastarelih sistema i tehnologija, uz mnogo lakše uključivanje neuključenih što podstiče razvoj zajednice.

 

Digitalno doba nam dakle omogućava da stvaramo „od kuće“, a budemo deo svetske ekonomije. U Srbiji se ta šansa već veoma koristi. Prema istraživanjima Centra za istraživanje javnih politika, u Srbiji ima oko 74.000 radnika koji rade putem digitalnih platformi[4], a Srbija ima jedan od najvećih „rezervoara“ potencijalnih radnika na globalnim digitalnim platformama per capita[5].

 

Time se ne zadržavaju samo domaći ljudi sa idejama – kreativni ljudski i tehnološki kapital, već privlače i strani. Beograd i Srbija sve više postaju prepoznati kao dobro mesto za život i rad digitalnih nomada[6]. Prema ocenama korisnika Nomad List, sajta koji okuplja najveću svetsku mrežu digitalnih nomada, Beograd spada u jednu od 20 najpopularnijih destinacija. Nedavno pokrenuta inicijativa domaće digitalne i startap zajednice – BelgradeGets.digital, još jedan je pozitivan korak u tom pravcu.

 

Konačno, kriza prouzrokovana COVID pandemijom uticala je da mnogi naši uspešni profesionalci širom sveta preispitaju svoje odluke i planove, vrate se i nastave da vode svoje globalno uspešne preduzetničke priče iz Srbije.

 

Verujemo da će svi pomenuti primeri i trendovi preduzetničkog stvaralaštva u Srbiji uticati da se ako ne isprave, onda makar ublaže efekti depopulacije.

 

 

Izvori:

[1] https://sdgintegration.undp.org/how-reverse-shrinking-population

[2] https://www.dsi.rs/srpski-startapi-jedini-iz-regiona-drugi-put-na-svetskoj-startup-genome-mapi/

[3] https://saradnja.rs/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Anketa-1000-preduze%C4%87a-2020..pdf

[4] https://novaekonomija.rs/vesti-iz-zemlje/u-srbiji-posluje-oko-74000-frilensera-polovina-svih-u-beogradu

[5] https://publicpolicy.rs/publikacije/7541feaa6a2ab37f0f57ea39f035f9cc247d6a75.pdf

[6] https://www.euronews.com/travel/2021/06/08/meet-the-digital-nomads-blazing-a-trail-in-serbia

 

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